I’m fascinated by research, but frequently frustrated by how long it takes to reach end-users. Farming moves at a speed infinitely faster than research, but for good reason. Research helps us sort through casual observations and one-time coincidences for deeper truths and connections. Because we give more weight to research than observation, it requires more accuracy, rigor, and time.
But it all starts with good observations and questions. Which is why I’m so excited to attend the OEFFA Conference this month! It’s a great opportunity for disciplines to cross paths – farmers, growers, suppliers, researchers, program administrators—and share information.
At the OEFFA conference or otherwise, please feel free to be in touch. I’d love to talk about some of the research topics you’re interested in. We’re working with OEFFA and Central State on ways to promote organic research collaboration between farmers and scientists in Ohio. One opportunity listed below is the Warner Grant program (a long-time project of OSU's Agroecosystem Management Program), which is taking proposals until March 1. Also below are a few recent research updates, along with other resources and events coming up in the next month.
-Cassy Brown, OFFER program manager
Organic Dairy Herd Health Management in Ohio.
According to the most recent USDA survey, Ohio ranks 4th in the number of certified organic dairies and 14th in production. Organic dairy producers have distinct perspectives, approaches, challenges, and experiences when managing herd health, but few studies have documented these. Ohio State researchers used semi-structured interviews to examine herd health management for the organic dairy industry in and around Ohio. Interviews examined decision factors relating to disease prevention and treating infectious diseases, along with organic dairy - veterinarian relationships. Read more: https://go.osu.edu/orgdairy19.
Organic Corn Trial Results Available
The Ohio Organic Corn Performance Test evaluates certified organic corn hybrids for grain yield and other important agronomic characteristics. The tests were conducted on certified organic fields at Apple Creek (West Badger Farm) and Wooster (Fry Farm) in Wayne County and were intensively managed for nutrients and weed control using organic practices. See results at https://ohiocroptest.cfaes.osu.edu/organiccorntrials/.
Vegetable Pathology Lab 2021 Trials
The OSU Vegetable Pathology Lab carried out an active field research program in 2021, with full field trials spread across three Ohio research sites in Wooster, Celeryville, and Fremont and three bioassays for downy and powdery mildew management. As part of their 2021 trials, the lab tested biological control products, and disease-resistant varieties to manage diseases of tomatoes, peppers, cucumbers, pumpkins, cabbage and collards. You can read the research trial results at Plant Pathology Series 2022_Veg Pathology Research Rpts 2021_final. (These trials were not conducted on organic certified plots. Always refer to your certification agency’s approved list of products.)
43rd Annual OEFFA conference Feb 12, 17-19
The Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association Conference is February 17 to 19 in Dayton, Ohio, and February 12 online. More than 1,200 folks from throughout the state attend this conference. Funds are available through SARE to cover Ohio State educators’ registrations. Contact Mike Hogan or Suzanne Mills Wasniak if interested in attending or displaying materials. Registration closes February 10. Learn more at https://conference.oeffa.org/
Ray Archuleta "Soil Health and Regenerative Ag - Feb 24 in West Liberty, Ohio
Missouri farmer, retired soil health researcher Ray Archuleta will discuss soil health and regenerative agriculture at the West Liberary Salm High School. This event includes a dinner at 5:30, with presentation at 6:30. The event costs $20 and includes CCA credits. Deadline to register is February 21, but space is limited. Read more at http://go.osu.edu/archuleta
Field Futures—Ohio – Workshop Event on Feb 22
Curious how climate change connects to your farm? Consider attending the inaugural Field Futures-Ohio workshop planned for Tuesday, February 22nd from 10-6PM at the Lodge at Scioto Grove. This unique event will use participatory design exercises to explore alternative climate futures for Ohio. There is no cost to attend, but space is limited and registration is required. Food and supplies provided. Register at go.osu.edu/fieldfutures by Tuesday, February 15 or contact Forbes Lipschitz for details (603 738 2144 or email).
Soil Health webinar series – March 3
The OSUE 2022 soil health series concludes with “Hot Topics-What's the Future of Soil Health?” on March 3, 8-9 a.m. A variety of soil health researchers will briefly discuss their current and ongoing work. Come with your questions and ideas! Register at go.osu.edu/soilhealth2022. Recordings of previous webinars are available at https://agcrops.osu.edu/events/webinar-recordings/dirt-soil-health-investing-below-surface-0
Test Drive New Organic Seed Varieties
Are you a farmer or gardener in the Upper Midwest? Are you interested in contributing to the development of new tomato and pepper varieties for organic farmers in our region? Consider joining the Seed to Kitchen Collaborative and SeedLinked plant breeding network. Read more at https://seedtokitchen.horticulture.wisc.edu/
Warner grant proposals for Sustainable Agriculture Research – due March 1
The OSU Sustainable Agriculture Team and Agroecosystems Management Program (AMP) is accepting proposals for on-farm research projects on sustainable agriculture topics. Research is intended to identify and publicize sustainable agricultural practices and systems that are profitable, socially responsible, energy efficient, and improve water quality and other environmental concerns relevant to Ohio farmers. Farmers are invited to partner with OSU scientists and extension educators to carry out these on-farm projects. Read the Request for Proposals at go.osu.edu/2022-warner-grants or contact Doug Jackson-Smith if you have questions. Proposals are due March 1, 2022.
Organic Grain Training
The Organic Agronomy Training Service (OATS), the University of Wisconsin-Madison’s OGRAIN, and the American Society of Agronomy (ASA) have launched a video series, call series, and listserv for organic advisors and ag professionals to connect and learn from each other. Read more at https://www.organicagronomy.org/organic-advisor-call-series.
The OFFER program cooperates with Ohio State Agricultural Operations to maintain organic production space for field research. Most of the land is located at the West Badger Farm in Wooster and is managed organically when not active in research projects. Facilities include dedicated organic equipment, grain storage, and staff to assist with farm and certification management. Researchers or cooperators interested in reserving organic research land or cooperating for trials or demonstrations should contact Brian Gwin, OFFER coordinator. Multiple small and large grants are available for this work. Find more resources around this topic at https://offer.osu.edu/resources/resources-researchers.
This summer, West Badger is home to organic variety trials for corn and oats, year 2 of a perennial wheatgrass trial, and cultivation equipment trials in partnership with Tilmor. Plans for additional variety trials are underway.
|Cultivation Equipment Trials|
OFFER is pleased to partner with Tilmor for equipment trials on our West Badger research station. Based in Orrville, Ohio, Tilmor specializes in affordable tools and equipment for smaller farms. Read more about Tilmor at tilmor.com/en-us
|Organic Variety Trials|
Oats were planted in early spring along with organic corn variety trials.
|Variety trial results are archived at u.osu.edu/perf/. Results from 2021 oats should be added soon.|
|Perennial Wheatgrass Trials|
Kernza seed and forage was harvested in late July at the Wooster (above) and Fremont (below) sites. Kernza is a potential dual purpose crop for grain and forage. This work is part of a multistate project to track productivity, quality, and soil health under various fertilization and harvest timing treatments
|Weed pressure remains high at the Wooster site, but the Fremont trial was virtually weed free this second year. Leader researcher Steve Culman will continue to monitor this potential crop's competition with weeds to see if this crop might be useful duing organic transition or as an effective weed management tool with soil health benefits.|
Learn more about the perennial grain kernza and see the trial plot in this brief video: https://youtu.be/epJaE5ihiVE (3:17)
Only a few days are left to reserve your spot at Ohio’s largest sustainable food and farming conference. Registration ends on Monday, February 8 for the Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association’s 42nd annual conference, which will be held online February 10-15.
Among the speakers from Ohio State this year, extension soil specialist Steve Culman will be sharing information on his USDA perennial grain trials. This is Culman’s second research project on the perennial wheatgrass known as kernza. He is testing an organic variety of kernza for suitability in Ohio as a dual-purpose crop (forage and grain production). This summer his lab will begin on-farm trials and is looking for additional participants.
Kernza is used mainly for forage and grazing in the western U.S. While the grain has end uses and nutritional values similar to wheat, Culman admits the grain production is not very good and that markets and facilities for kernza are only just developing. While it has potential for dual purpose production, more research and development will be needed.
So why would a farmer consider kernza? Because it has a third purpose of great importance: Soil health.
“Organic systems go through this dichotomous cycle of growing cash crops, and then growing a crop for conservation or soil development," Culman notes. "With kernza you could do both.”
Recent Ohio State research reviewed hundreds of regional soil tests results, comparing management practices with various soil health measurements linked to yield, biological activity, and fertilizer efficiency. The most effective management practice for improving soil health was the use of perennials. Perennial crops reduce traffic and tillage, but they also leave roots in the ground year-round to contribute to biological activity, provide below-ground biomass, and crowd out weed growth. Kernza really shines in root development, with roots that reach 10 feet down or deeper and spread horizontally to outcompete weeds.
“Kernza stays pretty green through harvest,” says Culman. “It’s not like wheat. You harvest the grain in late July/early August. So you could harvest the grain, then chop or hay the remaining biomass. Then you can let it regrow. This is not enough time to develop seed heads, but the regrowth should get knee high or so in the fall. Then it can be grazed."
Based on his previous trials, Culman feels kernza has great potential for organic transition, weed control, riparian zones, forage, fall grazing, and even grain production, all while improving soil quality.
The OEFFA conference kernza presentation will be Friday, February 12 at 10 a.m., but conference attendees will also be able to watch recorded presentations through March. Dr. Culman will also be available in the OFFER virtual conference booth on Friday, February 12 from 2-3 p.m. for anyone who would like to know more about the on-farm kernza trials or to chat about soil health and fertility.
See the full line up of OFFER booth events at offer.osu.edu/booth. We will also host Glen Arnold, extension field specialist in manure management; Erin Silva from University of Wisconsin and OGRAIN; and Rich Minyo, organic corn variety trial researcher.
For more information on the OEFFA conference, visit https://conference.oeffa.org/.
To learn more about the soil health and management study findings, join us for "Management Practices That Impact Soil Health and Organic Matter with Christine Sprunger, March 17 at 11 a.m., part of the OFFER 2021 Organic Winter Webinar series.
Results are available online for the 2019 Michigan Organic Soybean Variety Trials. The trials included 43 varieties – 20 of which are commercially available. Results include details on source, variety, maturity group, hilum color, percent oil, percent protein, maturity days after planting, plant height, yield and multi-year data.
Previous years’ organic trials for soybeans, edible beans, and other agronomic crops can be found at the Organic Farmers of Michigan website.
Ohio State Corn and Oats Variety Trials Planned for 2020
Ohio State is planning organic crop variety trials this year for both corn and oats. Organic farm manager Gerald Reid reports 15 varieties of oats have emerged and that corn trials should be planted soon.
Previous Ohio State organic corn variety trials can be found online as well:
Licenses for hemp cultivation and processing are available in Ohio beginning this week. However, Brad Bergefurd, horticulture specialist at Ohio State’s South Centers, warns potential growers to consider carefully before clearing ground for our state’s budding hemp industry.
“Long term, I think Ohio hemp for seed, fiber and possible nutraceutical products has great economic potential for Ohio agriculture,” says Bergefurd, “but I am afraid early adopters of this crop right now could be setting themselves up for failure if they have not firmly developed their own hemp marketing and production plants well in advance.”
Hemp production has high potential as an organic product, especially for CBD production, which is the type of production Ohio State’s trials focused on. Since CBD is used in health products, manufacturers prefer or require organic practices. But the risk level is high, says Bergefurd. From the university hemp trials in 2019, he found production was very labor-intensive and required specialized equipment for planting, harvesting, and drying. Planting costs alone were around $10,000 - $15,000 per acre. These are risky investments for a crop that might ultimately be confiscated if it fails to meet minimum THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) levels.
Even though the university purchased low-THC varieties, all the southern Ohio trials failed to pass the legal minimum for THC, says Bergefurd, which is not an uncommon problem. The issue of illegal THC levels, along with falling prices from a national oversupply of CBD hemp, have caused serious losses for farmers in Kentucky and other southern states in the past year, leading to economic strain and farm foreclosures. He doesn’t want to see that happen in Ohio.
In addition to the low THC requirement (0.3% for hemp--compared to average marijuana THC content of 3.5%), hemp crops must be harvested within 15 days of Ohio Department of Agriculture’s THC testing. In the Ohio trials, levels of both THC and CBD rose with decreasing moisture levels, leaving much of a farmer’s fate up to the weather. That’s nothing new; but combined with the other risks and start-up costs, it might give a grower pause.
“We just have a lot of research work to do before we are fully prepared,” says Bergefurd. “Not only for growing the crop, but we have limited to no hemp buyers, or processing and marketing infrastructure developed in Ohio as of today.”
After all, it’s been nearly 80 years since hemp was last grown legally in Ohio. Bergefurd says research is needed to develop management practices for pest control and other production concerns, along with breeding programs to develop varieties better suited to the low THC requirements. He is hopeful that legalizing hemp will be an important first step in creating the research and investment needed to make hemp a viable new market for Ohio.
Ellen Essman, from Ohio State's Law Office urges growers to read through the Ohio Department of Agriculture's Hemp Program page carefully to become familiar with the many rules and fees involved.
"If you wish to grow or process hemp," she writes in the OSU Farm Office Blog, "there are detailed rules you must follow, such as getting your sites approved, setback requirements, land use restrictions, and providing ODA with information like GPS coordinates of the land and the number of acres and plants you cultivate, just to name a few."
- "Don’t Hurry Into Hemp” article from OSU South Centers.
Based on an article from Organic Seed Alliance by Kiki Hubbard. Read the full article here.
New varieties of disease-resistant cucurbits are commercially available as a result of Cornell University's Eastern Sustainable Organic Cucurbit Project.
Through participatory efforts with farmers and regional seed companies, Extension researchers developed new varieties with organic producers in mind, focusing on resistance to common diseases and pests, but also on production and culinary characteristics important to organic farmers.
“All of our successes with DMR are owed to farmer input,” says project director Michael Mazourek. “We took moderately resistant material that we had at Cornell, moderately resistant material identified by organic farmers, and people are seeing the literal cross-pollination of these partnerships in DMR varieties now available to growers.”
‘Trifecta’ muskmelon stood out for its excellent eating quality and yield–even under levels of downy mildew pressure that defoliated most commercial melon varieties. The variety also exhibited good bacterial wilt resistance and was less prone to damage from striped cucumber beetles. ‘Trifecta’ is currently available for sale through Common Wealth Seed Growers and Southern Exposure Seed Exchange.
DMR401 cucumber, a downy-mildew resistant (DMR) slicing cucumber variety, now available for purchase through Common Wealth Seed Growers, High Mowing Organic Seeds, SeedWise, and Southern Exposure Seed Exchange.
DMR264 cucumber, excellent resistance to new strain of downy mildew, smaller and bred for warmer climates with severe pressure from downy mildew. Available from Common Wealth Seed Growers.
Additional varieties are being tested for release.
The Eastern Sustainable Organic Cucurbit Project has received funding from the USDA Organic Research and Extension Initiative, as well as the Organic Farming Research Foundation, Sustainable Agriculture Research and Education (SARE), and the Clif Bar Family Foundation. Read more about the project at eOrganic.