educational resources

cows grazing

 

This year between January and March in 2021, the Pastures for Profit curriculum will be offered as a virtual course.

The Pastures for Profit program is a collaboration between Ohio State University Extension, Central State University, USDA-Natural Resources Conservation Service, Ohio Federation of Soil and Water Conservation Districts, Ohio Department of Agriculture, and the Ohio Forage and Grasslands Council. One live webinar will be offered per month along with “work at your own pace” videos and exercises that accompany each webinar.

Event organizer, Christine Gelley, Ohio State extension educator in Noble County, welcomes organic participants. She sees pasture management as a naturally low-input farming system if it’s done right, relying on holistic thinking and species diversity.

Each webinar will be offered live on Zoom at 7 P.M. and feature three presentations in a 90-minute span. Attendees will be able to interact with the speakers and ask questions in real time. Once registered, attendees will be granted access to the online course including the webinars and complementary resources. Participants that attend all three webinars will have the opportunity to earn a certificate of completion. Registered participants will also receive their choice of a curriculum binder or USB drive of the traditional course by mail.

The webinar schedule and topics are as follows.

Webinar One- Core Grazing Education: Wed., January 13th at 7 p.m.

- Evaluating Resources and Goal Setting

- Getting Started Grazing

- Soil Fertility

Webinar Two- The Science of Grazing: Wed., February 3rd at 7 p.m.

- Understanding Plant Growth

- Fencing and Water Systems

- Meeting Animal Requirements on Pasture

Webinar Three- Meeting Grazing Goals: Wed., March 3rd at 7 p.m.

- Pasture Weed Control

- Economics of Grazing

- Creating and Implementing Grazing Plans

A series of additional videos that complement each webinar will be accessible to registered participants that include topics such as:

- Soil Health & Fertility

- Species Specific Tips

- Stocking Densities

- Forage Sampling and Analysis

- Winter Feeding Strategies

- Conservation Practices

- Genetic Traits of Forages

- Pasture Layouts

- Farm Economics

- Pasture Walks/Virtual Tours

These videos will focus on more specific pasture management topics at the beginner and experienced manager levels.

The Pastures for Profit course utilizes Scarlet Canvas. For best performance, Canvas should be used on the current or first previous major release of Chrome, Firefox, Edge, or Safari. Canvas runs on Windows, Mac, Linux, iOS, Android, or any other device with a modern web browser.

Cost of the course is $50, which includes the Pastures for Profit manual. Current and new members of the Ohio Forage and Grasslands Council are eligible for a $10 discount on registration. Register for the course by visiting https://afgc.org/ofgcwebinar.

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Trends and Highlights of Ohio Farmers: Organic Sector Implications

Trends and Highlights of Ohio Farmers: Organic Sector Implications
December 2, 2020, 11-11:45 a.m. 

The recent USDA Certified Organic Survey provided an overview of continued growth in organic agricultural production in Ohio and nationwide. Organic farmers  were also an area of focus for the 2020 Ohio Farm Poll Study conducted this past year at Ohio State.

On December 2, 2020, farm poll study leaders Douglas Jackson-Smith, Shoshanah Inwood, and Andrea Rissing will focus in on survey results for organic growers.

Find out what this survey, and other available data, tell us about Ohio’s organic farming community. We’ll cover commodities, marketing strategies, and attitudes of this industry sector and see how they compare, in general, with Ohio’s conventional farm community on a variety of trends and characteristics.  

This presentation is the first in a series of organic-themed webinars being hosted this winter by OFFER (Ohio State’s Organic Food & Farming Education and Research program). The series will provide opportunities for Ohio’s organic community and those who work with them, to learn about Ohio State resources and to provide feedback, experience, and ideas for new research and program directions. Farmers considering organic certification or seeking ways to lower their farm inputs will also benefit from the presentations.

The webinar series is scheduled for Wednesdays at 11 a.m. Sessions will be short, focused, practical, and will invite participant feedback. 

See a full list of organic webinar topics at go.osu.edu/organic-series. You can also sign up to receive an email reminder about this and future presentations in the series.

Additional winter programming from Ohio State extension can be viewed at https://agnr.osu.edu/programming/farm-direct-markets. Series on farm management, agricultural safety, soil health, and more are listed and/or under development. 

Did you miss this presentation or want to watch it again? You can view it here: https://youtu.be/aeakxcQHfxQ

Log In Details

https://osu.zoom.us/j/95582345119?pwd=V1lERWxrZjRBc2ZSTWc4RzZpaE1oUT09
Meeting ID: 955 8234 5119
Password: organic

Or by telephone
        +1 312 626 6799 US (Chicago)
        +1 646 876 9923 US (New York)
Meeting ID: 955 8234 5119
Password: 5688833
If asked for a participant id, enter 0.
From outside our region? Find your local number: https://osu.zoom.us/u/axRjkVacA

Need more help? 
- Phone: 614-688-4357 (HELP)
- Email: carmenzoom@osu.edu
- Accessibility Help Line: 614-292-5000

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number of certified organic growers by state, 2019

On October 22, the United State Department of Agriculture’s National Agricultural Statistics Service released survey results from the 2019 Certified Organic Survey. Nationwide, sales of organic commodities rose 31% since the last organic survey in 2016. The number of farms producting certified organic commodies increased by 17% nationally, while land used for organic production increased by 9%. 

A few Ohio highlights

Number of Farms. Ohio's organic sector remains strong, ranking 5th among U.S. states in the number of certified organic operations. The number of certified organic farms in Ohio grew by 37% since the last organic census in 2016. The number of certified organic acres in Ohio increased 51% in that time. However, the average acres of organic cropland per farm increased by only 10% in the state.

Agronomic Leadership. Grain corn continues to be one of the top U.S. organic crop commodities and Ohio continues to be a major producer of organic corn, ranking 5th among states in the number of producers, and 9th in the number of acres. Ohio also ranks in the top ten states for organic soybeans and oats, in terms of number of farms and acres in production.

Organic Sales. The number of farms selling organic products in Ohio increased by 38%, but actual sales only increased 16%. Sales growth occurred mainly in crops (56% growth for Ohio, vs. a national increase of 38%). Sales of livestock products (eggs, milk, etc.) grew by 13% (similar to national growth of 12%). However, livestock and poultry sales in Ohio actually decreased by 39% (while growing by 19% nationally and 34% in the neighboring state of Pennsylvania). OFFER is beginning to investigate organic meat packaging and processing in the state to see if this could be an area for future growth. As previously noted by OEFFA’s report on the 2017 agricultural census, “the number of custom meat processors in the state has declined for decades and is currently critically limited.”

Read more

The 2019 Certified Organic Survey is a Census of Agriculture Special Study. This marks the sixth comprehensive organic survey NASS has conducted, beginning in 2008, but the methodology has varied in past studies. This recent study provides comparable data between the 2016 Organic Survey.

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Register at fsr.osu.edu

It's online, free, and happening this week. The 2020 Farm Science Review runs Tuesday, September 22 through Thursday, September 24. The virtual event will feature more than 400 exhibitors and 200-plus livestreamed and recorded talks and demos from Ohio State professors and Ohio State University Extension educators. If you miss any of the live sessions, don’t worry. Most materials and sessions will be available until July 2021. Registration is required for the review, but only involves a name and email address.Sign up at fsr.osu.edu

A Sampling of Offerings

Value Chains in Food and Agriculture. A panel discussion by Ohio State agricultural economicst on Tuesday, Sept 22 at 10 a.m. will focus on food chain issues for the Ohio agricultural industry during the coronavirus pandemic and what lessons have been learned so far, how farmers markets and local food outlets have adapted, and the risk management related to crops and livestock. Panelists will also address trade and other economic issues of current interest. 

Considering direct meat sales? On a related note, a talk about "On-the-Farm Slaughter and Processing," is slated for Tuesday, Sept. 22, 11–11:30 a.m. and at noon, Garth Ruff, beef cattle field specialist with Ohio State University Extension will share advice on “Direct to Consumer Meat Sales.”

Forages and Grazing topics are offered at the Gwynne Conservation area, including Grazing/Soil Health, Grazing Management Through the Eyes of the Animal, Native Warm Season Grasses, Meeting Animal Nutrient Requirements on Pasture, and much more. 

OSU Small Farms Center will offer "Organic Wed Control: Options for Small Scale Vegetable Growers" on Tuesday at 11:30., as well as sessions on agritourism, on-line sales, hemp, small grains, goat production, blackberrires, and more. 

The OSU Agronomic Crops team will offer a daily Q&A sessions throughout the day on cover crops and soil health, on-farm research, forage crops, plus virtual agronomy plot tours.

Other topics on tap this year include increasing profits from small grains by planting double crops, climate trends, managing cash flow on the farm, farm stress, and rental rates on agricultural land. Sessions are divided by topics and searchable by keywords. 

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At this point in the growing season, you might have more dirt on your hands than time. But for those interested in new production techniques, here are a few opportunities for learning. Most are available for viewing whenever you are.  

The Organic Farming Research Foundation is seeking feedback on their new online training modules. There will be 6 models in all when finished. Topics available now include Ecological Weed Management, Nutrient Management, Soil Health, and Conservation Tillage. https://ofrf.org/programs/education/

The Rodale Institute is offering their Organic field day online. Just $25 gets you access to all 13 virtual field days, presented July 13-17. Thirteen topics include pastured hog production, beekeeping, organic no-till, and vegetable systems.
https://rodaleinstitute.org/get-involved/visit/organic-field-day/

Indiana Organic Grain Farmer Meeting – Recordings from the February 2020 meeting include presentations from farmers and researchers, including a session on the financial side of organic transition and an organic no-till research update. 
https://www.purdue.edu/dffs/organicag/2020-indiana-organic-grain-farmer-meeting-youtube-videos/

You can also view new articles (and accompanying spreadsheets) comparing financials of conventional and organic crop rotations: from the Purdue University Center for Commercial Agriculture

Looking for something a little more hands-on? Ohio Ecological Food and Farm Association (OEFFA) offers internship, apprenticeship, and mentorship programs for beginning farmers.
https://beginfarming.oeffa.org/

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Left: dicamba-damaged pumpkin leaf (Lindsey Orphan, SIU-Carbondale.) Right: dicamba-damaged soybeans (Mark Loux, Ohio State)

Since 2016, soybean farmers have quickly adopted dicamba- and 2,4-D-ready crops in their fight against herbicide-resistant weeds. However, the expanded use of these herbicides during the growing season has led to an increased threat of drift damage for neighboring specialty crop growers. Several high-value crops can be damaged by concentrations of 1/300 the labeled rate or lower. Crops with especially high sensitivity to dicamba and 2,4-D include grapes, tomatoes, and soybeans that are not engineered for dicamba-resistance. Recent legal issues have limited the use of three dicamba products for the 2020 growing season, but 2,4-D and other dicamba products are still in use and will continue to pose a risk in areas with diversified or organic production.

A new fact sheet series is available to help specialty crop growers prepare for and respond to possible dicamba and 2,4-D drift. The series provides tips for being proactive, detailed steps for documenting and responding to damage, and a brief background on why dicamba and 2,4-D have been especially problematic. A Frequently Asked Questions fact sheet highlights various concerns pertinent to specialty crop producers. The series sought input from a variety of crop and herbicide specialists across the United States, as well as state regulatory agencies.

Fact sheets are available online at go.osu.edu/ipm-drift.

Preparing for drift

“Vigilance and communications are the two big things,” says Ohio State weed specialist Doug Doohan, “Knowing who your neighbors are, talking to them about your plans, talking to them about their plans, being aware of who’s doing what on the land and when.”

But who is your neighbor when it comes to drift? Just how far can dicamba drift travel? Most spray droplet drift will move short distances. This type of damage is generally limited to adjacent fields. However, dicamba and 2,4-D are likely to drift as a gas or via a temperature inversion. Temperature inversions can be especially damaging, moving suspended pesticides in a fog-like layer for longer distances.

“There’s all kinds of circumstantial evidence of much greater movement,” says Doohan. “When you’re talking inversions, if an inversion is motivated by a 2-3 mph wind, it could go miles—especially if the conditions persist through the evening.”

Doohan has helped investigate several drift cases and was one of the co-authors for the new fact sheet series. He encourages growers to establish a Standard Operating Procedure to prepare for a drift incident, just as they might for food safety concerns. He also stresses the importance of documenting suspected drift quickly, thoroughly, and repeatedly. The new fact sheet series offers detailed suggestions for these activities.

“If you see something, document it,” he advises. “Use your cell phone. You can always delete unneeded photos later, but you can’t go back in time and get the picture you wish you had taken.”

The new fact sheet series was cowritten by specialists at The Ohio State University and Purdue University, with support from the North Central IPM Center Working Group on Herbicide-Drift Risk Management. The working group organized in the fall of 2019 and plans additional projects in the coming year, including more resources and an anonymous survey of specialty crop growers to better assess the extent and frequency of drift damage throughout the north central region. The North Central IPM Center serves Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, South Dakota, and Wisconsin and is supported by the USDA National Institute of Food and Agriculture through agreement 2018-70006-28884.

Microbe-containing industry overview

Biostimulants are not exclusive to organic systems, but they are a common input for organic growers. Ohio State vegetable production specialist Matt Kleinhenz has spent many years studying microbial-based biostimulants (MBBS). Few agricultural input markets have seen the kind of explosive growth that has occurred with MBBS.

“These products are widely available, relatively inexpensive, are said to offer interesting and appealing benefits, and rarely put users at significant risk, unlike some other products,” says Kleinhenz.

Nicole Wright, program coordinator for the Vegetable Production Lab’s MBBS project, also attributes market growth to increased interest in microbiology.

“I think growers are applying them and thinking about soil and soil microbiology,” she says, “They are thinking ‘everything I hear says that having healthy soil means having lots of living things in them and if I can contribute to that, it’s a good thing.’”

With a constant stream of products entering and exiting the market, Kleinhenz and his team are less interested in testing specific products and more interested in answering the bigger questions surrounding this subset of agricultural inputs. Their research has focused on identifying which factors are important to product efficacy, such as the effect of timing and application rate.

Kleinhenz and Wright have this advice for growers interested in or already using MBBSs on their crops:

  • Do background research. Just because a product is OMRI-listed does not mean it’s been found effective. Set aside time to read up on the product. Take a critical look at label instructions. What details are provided about the timing, application rate and application methods? What can the manufacturer tell you about mixing it with other products or using it in specific conditions or crops?
  • Be wary of claims that seem exaggerated. Most of these products create modest, gradual, and/or inconsistent yield improvements. Growers should have realistic expectations for MBBS products.
  • Product consistency can be an issue with MBBSs. If a product only works some of the time, the cause may be related to the user, the manufacturing process and product itself, or production conditions. For example, environmental factors like soil fertility, pH, or cropping history might influence  the product’s effectiveness.
  • Use storage and handling procedures that acknowledge these are living products. Avoid temperature extremes and chlorinated water, for example.
  • Track what happens. Referrals from other users of the product are valuable. But remember that their success won’t necessarily be repeated in your farm’s unique conditions. When trying a new product or practice, maintain a similar untreated part of your field to compare. Do your own experiments with rate and timing. Keep records on what you applied, where, and take notes on any differences you see in growth, yield, quality, etc.
  • Use good cultural processes to increase microbials in your soil too. Wright likens MBBS products to taking a vitamin vs. eating healthy foods. Cultural practices that favor soil biodiversity, organic matter, and good drainage are also needed to provide food and conditions that allow microbial life to thrive.

Change is coming

So far, these products are largely unregulated. For the first time, the current farm bill includes language defining a biostimulant--an important first step in creating better uniformity in the industry, says Kleinhenz. Some manufacturers are concerned about the overall image of MBBS products and are pushing for a more narrow definition along with efficacy testing.

Kleinhenz feels regulation will usher in increased product consistency and better information for consumers, but regulation may also limit the number of products available. Testing product efficacy requires time, expertise, and/or expenses that smaller manufacturers may find challenging.

He also questions if it is truly appropriate to apply the same efficacy standards used for many mainstream agricultural inputs. Based on averages and standard, proven statistical analysis, a comparison of treated and non-treated plots failed to show that inoculation (product use) significantly influenced yield. However, the Vegetable Production Systems Lab team observed many times when a MBBS did increase yield (and a few times when it lowered it).

“If you went out to your truck and it only started half of the mornings, you’d be pretty annoyed and conclude it’s unreliable, that it’s not working,” Kleinhenz says. “However, if you apply a product to your crops or soils and see measurable improvement say, 30% of the time, you might still find the application worthwhile if the costs and other risks were low. Our goal as a team is to provide growers and others with information they can use to distinguish worthwhile from unwise investments and practices.”

There are many additional practical questions to answer that could involve microbiology and decision-making. For now, Kleinhenz and his lab are enjoying the conversation and questions stimulated by this growing and changing industry. 

Read more at: https://u.osu.edu/vegprolab/research-areas/vegebiostimsferts/

This research is supported by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Organic Transitions Program under award Number 2016-51106-25714 and also under award number 2016-38640-25381 through the North Central Region SARE program under subaward number LNC16-380.

In-person Ohio State Extension events scheduled for March and early April are being canceled due to coronavirus concern. County extension offices will also be closing, but Ohio State employees continue to work remotely and can be reached by email. Read more here. 

The Wood County Transition to Organic Grains workshop originally scheduled for April will be rescheduled for a safe and appropriate date.

Ohio State Resources for Coronavirus 

Questions Regarding the Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) on Farms with Employees
(pdf – English) 
(pdf – Spanish)

Mitigating Immediate Harmful Impacts of COVID-19 on Farms and Ranches selling through Local and Regional Food Markets (pdf)

Tax Implications for Farmers (pdf)

Food Safety Fact Sheets

More resources will be added at Ohio State's Addressing 2020 Agricultural Challenges website.

Need Business Help? 

OSU South Centers Business Development Network has expert advice, technology, and other resources for small businesses, manufacturers, and cooperatives. 

Learning at home

Ohio State March Ag/NR Madness
Ohio State specialists are offered Agricultural and Natural Resources Madness this March: 64 timely educational events broken into daily brackets (topics). You can register to join these live at 9 a.m., noon, and 3 p.m. each day, or watch recorded events at your leisure. Schedule, registration, and archives can be accessed here: https://agnr.osu.edu/events/agriculture-and-natural-resources-madness.

E-extension Webinars on Organic/Sustainable Production
New and archived organic agriculture webinars are available through e-extension (https://learn.extension.org).

Upcoming seminars include:

The Microbiome: What is it and How Might it Impact Organic Dairy Production?
Monday, March 30 at 2:00 pm EDT

Update on Organic Crop Insurance Options for 2020-2021
Tuesday, March 31 at 2:00 pm EDT

MidAtlantic Women in Agriculture Webinar: Learning From Other's Mistakes: Estate Planning Mistakes and Solutions
Wednesday, April 8 at 12:00 pm EDT

Economics of Grazing Organic Replacement Dairy Heifers
Wednesday, April 22, 2020 at 2:00 pm EDT

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Bees

Organic farms are excellent hosts for pollinators because of the reduced danger of pesticides, but also because of the greater diversity that organic operations often support, says Ohio State Bee lab director Denise Ellsworth. With over 450 different species of bees in Ohio, a variety of plants and habitats is important.

Ohio State’s Bee Lab is dedicated to research and outreach on topics related to honey bees, wild bees, and other pollinators. Ellsworth has partnered with others to develop numerous factsheets and resources on Ohio-specific bee and pollinator topics, including id guides to common Ohio bees, and tips for creating pollinator habitats with specific tree and plant suggestions.

Honey bees can of course serve as an additional source of income. Honey production comes to mind immediately, but some farmers also manage pollinator services, renting out their hives to various fields during the growing season. For those not looking to raise bees commercially, there are still benefits to creating pollinator habitats. According to Ellsworth, pollinators share the same habitat needs as other beneficial insects. “So even if you’re not growing something that relies on pollinators, you’ll be creating a habitat for other beneficial insects: wasps, lady beetles, and other ‘good guys,’” she says.

Whether you’re managing a small personal garden or a multi-acre farm, areas to develop for pollinator habitat are easy to identify: Fallow fields, cover crops, hedgerows, windbreaks, riparian buffers, ponds and ditches, natural or undeveloped areas, pastures, and flower gardens can all be improved with features and plants to attract pollinators.

Selected Ohio State resources are listed below. You can also visit the Ohio State Bee Lab website for more resources including current research, and information on the Ohio Bee Atlas, to which citizen scientists can contribute photos and observations. Additional resources are available through the Xerces Society for Invertebrate Conservation. They have several general factsheets and guides related to organic farms and pollinators. https://xerces.org/pollinator-conservation/organic-farms/

Upcoming Events
http://u.osu.edu/beelab/courses/

Honey Bee Resources
Getting Started with Honey Bees, IPM for Bees, etc.
http://u.osu.edu/beelab/honey-bee-resources/

Creating Pollinator Habitat
presentations from 2019 OEFFA Conference and 2019 Grazing Conference
http://u.osu.edu/beelab/farms-and-bees/

Attracting Pollinators to the Garden
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ENT-47

Bee, Wasp, Hornet, and Yellow Jacket Stings for Trainers and Supervisors
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/aex-892203

Bumble Bees in Ohio: Natural History and Identification of Common Species
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-84

How to Identify and Enhance Ohio’s Wild Bees in Your Landscape
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-85

Ohio Bee Identification Guide
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ENT-57

Ohio Bee Identification Cards and Posters
http://u.osu.edu/thebuzz/2018/09/21/common-bees-of-ohio-poster-and-id-card-free-pdf-available/

Ohio Trees for Bees
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-71

Pollinator Quick Guide: What You Can Do to Help Bumble Bees
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-81

Pollinator Quick Guide: What You Can Do to Help Honey Bees
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-79

Pollinator Quick Guide: What You Can Do to Help Native Bees
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-80

Pollinator Quick Guide: What You Can Do to Help Pollinators
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/ent-78

Honey Bees in House Walls
https://ohioline.osu.edu/factsheet/HYG-2079

Dr. Christine Sprunger, Ohio State, shares data on the influence of management practices on soil health

Recordings are available from the 27th Annual Conservation Tillage and Technology Conference, held in Ada, Ohio, in March 2019. This two-day event brought together speakers in a variety of subject areas – many of which will be of interest to organic farmers. 

Videos are available on the conference’s You Tube Channel.

Here are some of the offerings:

Cover Crop Panel: Addressing Cover Crop Seed Issues
Sarah Noggle, OSU Extension, Paulding Co., Moderator; Jay and Ann Brandt, Walnut Creek Seeds; Don Grimes, Ohio Seed Improvement; Cody Beacom, Bird Hybrids

Protecting Identity Preserved Crops In The Field:
Managing Pollen Drift to minimize contamination of Non-GMO Corn
Dr. Peter Thomison, OSU Extension Corn Specialist

Enhancing Mycorrhizae And Metarhizium Fungus
Jim Hoorman, USDA-NRCS, Soil Health Specialist

What Management Practices Most Influence Soil Health In Corn Production?  
Dr. Christine Sprunger, OSU Assistant Professor, SENR

Enhancing Beneficial Insects With Pollinators
Dr. Stephanie Frischie, Xerces Society Agronomist / Native Plant Materials Specialist, Plymouth, WI

Can Weeds Be Managed With Calcium Amendments?  
Dr. Doug Doohan, OSU Professor, HCS, and Andrea Leiva Soto, OSU PhD Student, HCS

Elephant In The Room: Why Do So Many Farmers Practice 'Soil Balancing' Despite The Lack Of Scientific Evidence?
Dr. Doug Jackson-Smith, OSU Professor, SENR, and Dr. Caroline Brock, OSU Senior Research Associate, SENR

The Effects Of Manipulating Ca:Mg Ratios On Ohio Crop Yields And Soil Health
Dr. Steve Culman, OSU Assistant Professor, SENR, and Will Osterholz, USDA-ARS

Weather Pattern Effects On Conservation Practices
Dr. Aaron Wilson, OSU, Byrd Polar and Climate Research Center
https://cfaes.osu.edu/news/articles/farmers-need-gear-for-more-rain

Return On Investment With Using Gypsum
Dr. Subbu Kumarappan, OSU Associate Professor, ATI

Gypsum Is More Than Calcium: Summary Of Ohio Field Crop Responses To Sulfur
Louceline Fleuridor, OSU MS student, HCS

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